Grade level: 6th, but you could easily modify this to work with younger or older students
Background: Students were working on a historical fiction genre study.
Resources: Primary source sets for each book:
Chains, Laurie Halse Anderson
Fever 1793, Laurie Halse Anderson
Forge, Laurie Halse Anderson
The Green Glass Sea, Ellen Klages
A Break with Charity, Ann Rinaldi
What is a primary source? What’s a secondary source?
What is the value of primary sources? What can they show us that we can’t get from a secondary source?
What are some types of primary sources?
Complex cases: What about a painting? What about a book? (Chernobyl, American Plague)
First, we will work as a whole class on a modeling activity using a photo from 1950s Soviet Russia. Students will receive a copy of this photograph at their tables and we’ll project it on the board, then as a whole class, we will discuss the photograph and complete a graphic organizer.
Students look at photo for 60 seconds, noting everything they can.
What can we observe? What can we infer from these observations? What can we infer from our prior knowledge? What questions do we still have?
Ask students to confer about the questions they wrote down. Which of those might be productive for further research?
After completing the graphic organizer, ask students: OK, what do we know about this time period that we didn’t know ten minutes ago? What ideas do we have for further research – what sparked our interest and made us want to learn more?
Students will break out into their book groups and work with these groups to interpret primary sources from their novel’s time period.
Students view or listen to the provided primary sources (using laptops and/or photocopies) at a table with their group. Students will have bibliographic information for their items.
Students work together to complete an analysis sheet (observations/inferences/questions) for their primary sources. Teachers/assistants spend at least a few minutes with each group, mostly observing student discussion, but prompting as necessary.
Independently, students answer questions:
What do I know that I didn’t know before I looked at these sources?
What new questions do I have? What seems most interesting? What would I like to research more?
Circle of Viewpoints/Fiction Writing Extension:
Show students the “Circle of Viewpoints” handout. Who might care about this document? Who are the stakeholders? Who might be affected? Brainstorm as a class. Ask: Do you think someone could write an interesting book from any of these perspectives? Which ones are most appealing to you?
Students return to their groups to complete a “Circle of Viewpoints” activity for one of their documents.
Using the ideas they generated in the “Circle of Viewpoints” exercise, students write a short story set during their time period from the perspective of one of the stakeholders they identified. They can also write a brief reflection on this experience: how did changing perspectives alter their own understanding of the time period?